Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a sudden, external, physical assault damages the brain. The damage can be focal (confined to one area of the brain) or diffuse (happens in more than one area of the brain). The severity of a brain injury can range from a mild concussion to a severe injury.
The most common form of TBI is called a Closed brain injury. Closed brain injuries happen when there is a nonpenetrating injury to the brain with no break in the skull. A closed brain injury is caused by a rapid forward or backward movement and shaking of the brain inside the bony skull that results in bruising and tearing of brain tissue and blood vessels. Closed brain injuries are usually caused by car accidents, falls, and increasingly, in sports.
Side effects of a TBI can include: Cognitive deficits Motor deficits Perceptual or sensory deficits Communication and language deficits Social difficulties Personality changes Regulatory disturbances:
- Changes in sleep patterns and eating habits